Oriental Negroshas two types of climatic conditions due to the mountain range running from north to south of Negros island. The whole eastern part of the province falls under the third type of climate which is characterized by not very pronounced maximum rainfall with a short dry season from one (1) to three (3) months. The other half falls under the first type, characterized by a distinct wet and dry season. A dry month is one wherein rainfall is less than two (2) inches.
The amount of rain varies from month to month. In 2002, records show that the month of April registered the lowest for the year, i.e. 12.6 mm, while the wettest month appeared to be October, with 169.7 mm of rainfall.
The temperature for the entire province ranged from 21.50C, 22.80C and 23.70C in 2002.Relative humidity in the province range between 78% and 84%. Annual average humidity in the province is approximately 82%.
Oriental Negros rarely experiences the worst effects of typhoons. The high mountains shield the province from the full impact of the southwest monsoon. They also keep the local weather generally fair all year round.
In terms of coverage area, the coconut industry is the largest in the province. Coconut is planted province-wide. Overall, the area planted to coconut has reached 143,394 hectares (from about 42,400 hectares in 1990), constituting about 10 per cent of the total land area.
The growing of mango (primarily the carabao or tu-ud variety) has become popular in the province due to the fruit’s high value and export potential. In 2002, the total area planted to mango stood at 2,706.50 hectares, equivalent to 270,670 trees.
The sugar industry in the province, which dates back to Spanish colonial times, provides business and employment to thousands of people, including some 8,000 planters. These planters harvest tons of sugarcane from vast tracts of mostly prime land (32,779 hectares as of 2001).
As of 2002, the number of livestock, poultry and pets in the province of Oriental Negros stood at around 1.83 million heads. Livestock refers to cattle, carabao, horse, goat, sheep and swine. Poultry means chicken, duck, geese, turkey, quail, pigeon and guinea fowl. Pets count rabbits, dogs and cats. Chicken comprised roughly half of this population. Work animals, namely carabao, cattle and horse, made up almost 20 percent. Pigs or swine composed only six (6) percent.
Oriental Negros has a thriving fishing industry due basically to built-in geographical advantages. It has an extensive coastline stretching out to 300 kilometers. Moreover, the southern parts of the province (specifically Bayawan City and the towns of Basay, Sta. Catalina and Siaton) have fishing grounds that lie along the major path of fish migration.
Out of 17,028 hectares of potentially irrigable area in the province, less than half, i.e. 45.64% or 7,772 hectares, are actually irrigated. This leaves 9,256 hectares for development. Serving these 7,772 hectares of farm land are 91 Communal Irrgation Systems (CIS) built by the government and the private sector.